构图的经典定律:黄金分割法

构图的经典定律:黄金分割法

我们在摄影创作中经常会听到“黄金分割法”或是“黄金分割比例”这样的名词,究竟什么是“黄金分割”呢?

“黄金分割”又称为“黄金定律”,是由古代希腊人发明的几何学公式,指将整体一分为二,较大部分与整体部分的比值等于较小部分与较大部分的比值,其比值约为0.618。这个比例被公认为是一种最能带给人视觉美感的比例关系。

黄金分割示意图

黄金分割示意图
黄金分割示意图

在数学概念上,我们把0.618定义为黄金分割比。如上图,我们将一条直线分成c和b两部分,当 c/b 等于0.618时,那么y点就是c与b的黄金分割点。这样的画面比例相对于其他构图比例,会显得更加协调,更符合人们的审美习惯。

蜜蜂就是处于黄金分割线上,1/250s,F5.6,ISO 100
蜜蜂就是处于黄金分割线上,1/250s,F5.6,ISO 100

生活中随处可见的黄金分割比

黄金分割-03

1/125s,F10,ISO 250
1/125s,F10,ISO 250

其实在现实生活中,处处存在着黄金分割比,上图是一张街景画面,摄影师把人物安排在画面左边的1/3处,除了让整个画面更加沉稳外,也增加了图片的延伸性和现场感。

下图中,带着微弱余光的夕阳与刚刚升起的月亮融合在一起,光线映衬着湖边围栏与古树的剪影,摄影师把前景的主体,放在整个画面右边的2/3处,余下1/3则留给完美的自然光线。

此组合让整幅画面视觉上更加安稳,主题也更加明确与突出,并且结合了美妙的光影效果,可以说是一幅成功的风光摄影作品。

黄金分割-05

1.6s,F8,ISO 100
1.6s,F8,ISO 100

井字构图(九宫格)和三分法

黄金分割-07

1/80s,F5.6,ISO 250
1/80s,F5.6,ISO 250

井字构图和九宫格构图比较强调的是四条直线的交叉点,而三分法注重的是等份的横向或者纵向的两条线。

井字构图法除了可以让我们更好地对画面进行布局,还可以有突出主体的作用。我们可以利用井字构图,来合理地安排主体的位置,一般我们都会把想要强调的主体放在“井”字四个交叉的某一个点上,这样的构图画面会给人舒适的视觉效果,让画面空间感更强。

黄金分割-09

1/320s,F2.5,ISO 100
1/320s,F2.5,ISO 100

上图中,摄影师利用了井字构图。在这种场景中,大多数摄影爱好者习惯把人物放置在画面的正中间,但是摄影师希望展现的是女孩子吹泡泡的景象,所以将主体置于画面的右下角,留出大量空间在左上角,吹出的彩色泡泡可以让画面充分延伸。

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