新手入门:摄影中的“色彩”(上)

新手入门:摄影中的“色彩”(上)

在刚开始拍照时,很多初学者常会被鲜艳的颜色所吸引,但摄影的色彩,真的只是调整对比度、饱和度这么简单吗?有的朋友在进行影像后期处理时,常会看到 RGB、sRGB、CMYK, 却不知道该使用哪一个色彩模式处理图片比较恰当。

下面我们就来简单讲述三原色及色彩空间的原理,接着深入探讨色相、明度及饱和度在摄影上的运用。懂得了基本概念,才能在摄影中玩转色彩。

1. 三原色与色彩空间 (RGB & Color Space)

看似白色的阳光,事实上是由不同色光混合而成,我们可以用不同的色彩空间来描述它。摄影:Vesuvius
看似白色的阳光,事实上是由不同色光混合而成,我们可以用不同的色彩空间来描述它。摄影:Vesuvius

阳光是由不同颜色的色光混合而成,若将这些色光看成一个有系统的组织,色彩空间就是描述不同颜色在组织中位置的定位系统,也是我们管理颜色的好帮手。

使用数码单反相机时,大家有没有遇到这样的情况:看到颜色管理菜单中 RGB 与 sRGB 的选项却搞不清楚它的作用是什么?使用 Adobe Photoshop 等图像处理软件进行后期时,被影像模式中的 RGB、CMYK 等名词弄得一头雾水?其实这些名词都是描述、运用色彩的不同方式,了解它们之后,你就会对影像背后的色彩原理更加熟悉。

2. RGB

RGB 叠加系统示意图
RGB 叠加系统示意图

首先,我们要说明“原色”。原色是指不能通过其它颜色的调配混合而得出的“基本色”。它并不是一种物理概念,反而是基于人眼对光线的生理作用而来。

我们的眼睛中有两种视觉感受细胞:椎状细胞和杆状细胞。其中椎状细胞有三种,分别侦测红、绿、蓝三种不同波长的光线,大脑将这三种讯息混和、比较后,再解读成我们所感受的各种色彩。

但当夜晚光线很弱时,椎状细胞就会休息,改由杆状细胞上场,杆状细胞只能分辨明暗,因此我们看不到颜色。虽然椎状细胞并非对红绿蓝三色的感受度最强,但是肉眼的椎状细胞对于这三种光线频率所能感受的带宽最大,也能够独立刺激这三种颜色的受光体,因此这三色被视为原色。

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