说了这么久,到底什么是单反相机?

说了这么久,到底什么是单反相机?

说了这么久单反,你真的清楚单反的定义吗?

先问问大家印象里的单反都长什么样?佳能 5D3,这台典型的数码单反肯定没得跑。

单反01

但实际上,单反的外形非常多变,以下这些也都是单反:

单反03

单反02

单反04

这下大家明白了,是不是单反和外形没太大关系,真正起决定性作用的是核心,也就是相机的内部结构。

“单反”(SLR)其实是一个简称,它的全称是“单镜头反光相机”(single lens reflex)。引用一句百度百科:“用单镜头并通过此镜头反光取景的相机”。

有点绕?说人话版:“只有一只镜头并通过反光镜取景的相机就是单反相机了!”

单反08

放张结构图方便大家理解,如图所示:
单反相机取景时,相机内的反光镜处于垂下状态,这时光线将穿过镜头,通过反光镜和五棱镜的多次反射后经过取景器,最后在人眼成像,供摄影师取景、构图;
而按下快门时反光镜将收起,光线通过镜头直接到达底片或传感器,完成一张照片的曝光。

只要理解了这个结构,基本也就清楚了单反的原理和定义。

那么既然有单镜头反光相机,有没有多镜头反光相机或单镜头非反光相机呢?

自然有~

双反(TLR)就是一种“多镜头反光相机”,和单反类似,它的全称是“双镜头反光相机”(twin lens reflex)。最典型的例子就是大名鼎鼎了禄来了~

薇薇安·迈尔和她的禄来
薇薇安·迈尔和她的禄来

而旁轴相机(rangefinder)则是“单镜头非反光相机”的代表。这个嘛,徕卡就是咯~

布列松和他的徕卡
布列松和他的徕卡

那么如果需要购买一台相机,在这几个种类中该如何选择呢?这其实是一个很大的话题(够老法师们在论坛里撕半辈子那种),不过既然提到了,还是简单介绍一下单反、双反和旁轴主要的优势和不足吧。

单反、双反和旁轴的主要优缺点:

单反09
单反优点:使用同一只镜头取景和拍摄,可以实现“所见即所得”,同时无论是超广角还是超长焦镜头都可以轻松 handle!没办法,谁让你是直接通过拍摄镜头取景呢!
单反缺点:同样是结构决定的,反光镜在一方面实现了摄影镜头取景,另一方面由于每次快门反光镜都要收起并放下一次,因此单反的快门震动是较大的!

双反优点:使用反光镜取景,可以观察画面景深,并且由于取景镜头与拍摄镜头是分开的,双反采用镜间快门,快门震动非常轻微!
双反缺点:取景与拍摄镜头分开,导致取景窗内的构图和实际构图有细微偏差(视差),不如单反严谨。此外,双反取景窗内的画面是左右颠倒的,需要一些时间适应。还有一点,大部分双反相机是不能更换镜头的!

旁轴优点:比单反相机更小、更轻,加上没有反光镜,旁轴相机的快门也十分安静。此外,旁轴特殊的取景方式便于摄影师在拍摄的同时观察周围的环境,无论是普通的纪实摄影爱好者还是专业的战地记者这一点都非常实用。
旁轴缺点:和双反一样,旁轴的取景方式也存在视差,同时由于取景框框线的限制,旁轴相机使用超广角镜头时需要外接取景器,且几乎不能使用长焦镜头。

如此看来还是单反相机均衡性能最强,这也是单反自上世纪出现后迅速击败旁轴并傲然相机市场的主要原因。

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